Geophysics

Surveying

Surveying department is performing its role as technical and effective unit in OEOC Company by updating its technical knowledge and equipments, attending in different land and marine seismological projects and cooperating with foreign companies.

Operating stages of land surveying:

  • Gathering basic information in accordance with project’s needs.
  • Providing appropriate equipments and fulfilling required tests.
  • Preparing regional maps and adding project information to them.
  • Recognizing the region and preparing complementary data to update current information.
  • Preparing current basic points around the region.
  • Creating GPS network on the basis of current basic points and performing required measurements.
  • Fulfilling network calculations through available software such as "L.G.O" Leica Geo office GNSS Solutions and "T.G.O" Trimble Geo office.
  •  Positioning receiver and explosive points in accordance with primary information and through different software such as GPS Seismic.
  • Introducing receiver points to operating groups in order to locate them on land.
  • Repeated positioning of mentioned points before seismic operations.
  • Determining final specifications of points for informing quality control department.
  • Preparing a perfect plan of operations and submitting it to different groups.
  • Preparing daily and monthly reports to regional managers and surveying department.
  • Compiling final reports along with a list from specifications of all related points.
  • Continual cooperation in designing and fulfillment of engineering projects i.e. profiles and section operation in road construction projects and calculating volume of earthworks.

 

Operating measures of marine surveying group:

Marine surveying considerably differs land surveying. The main responsibility of our operational group is receiving primary information and preparing regional map and a list of receiver and explosive points. Then, coordinates of designed lines and position of related points will be uploaded to employed software and subsequent coordination will be done with navigation department to direct the ships to related operational region.

Synchronicity is one of the most important issues in marine operations. That is, after direction of ship on required routes and arriving specific point, shoot order will be issued by surveying software and immediately, explosive equipments will be activated while recording system starts to register reflected data. Meanwhile, all information will automatically be registered on magnetic bonds and submitted to quality control unit after fulfillment of necessary processing.

Surveying group shall test all equipments in operational wharf before commencement of operations and prepare a report about it. This group may employ satellite GPS systems during operation and receive correcting information from coast stations to locate exact position of ships and consequently locate related seismological points (receiver points, energy resources, target points) on the basis of UKOOA format. It shall also provide a final report including report of devices’ tests, operating map and list of purpose points on magnetic bonds.

A perspective of geographic information system in OEOC surveying department:

Required procedures were done during past year for establishment of integrated web database in Tehran office. Beneficial measures were done in this case after fulfillment of feasibility studies and consideration of company’s objectives.

Auto pilot representation of Bahar 2D project was completely different from what was previously occurred; and usage of elevation model and satellite images which were provided to create a realistic and 3D view of district along with representation of all details and also with high capabilities in sampling question and answer process is one of the GIS projects.

 

Seismic Operations in Urban Districts

Electromagnetic Pulse Energy Source

Model: YENISEI-KEM-4

This specific type of devices which are erected on URAL vehicles, are employed as energy source and as per riskless nature of energy, they are appropriate for usage in residential districts, adjacent to buildings or in environmentally sensitive areas.

Hereunder are some technical specifications of this device:

  • Design power of shock: 100 ton
  • Source has four engines and four seismic wave emitter
  • Weight of source : 10,000 kg

 

Land 2D and 3D Seismic Operations

Geophysical studies are the most common method in oil and gas exploration companies which is used to determine structure and area of subsurface geological structures and also for development of oil and gas fields.

Seismological study is a geophysical method which includes different activities including gathering, processing, explaining and defining seismological data. Results of these studies may subsequently used for preparation of graphic model from subsurface structures.

In 2D seismology which is performed by the purpose of providing general scheme from subsurface structures, data gathering is done on seismological routes and in areas with far distances; while 3D seismology, the routes and points are more concentrated which will provide required conditions for preparation of 3D images from subsurface horizons.

Gathering Land Seismological Data:

Oil Exploration Operations Company with more than thirty years of experience in oil and gas exploration activities is the main geophysics contractor in Iran which presents its services to internal and international employer companies.

This company is providing highly qualified services for collecting 2D and 3D seismological data in different geographical areas including plane, mountains, swamplands and seas. Appropriate designs, energy source, equipments and field processing techniques are selected on the basis of environmental, geological and cultural conditions and in accordance with project’s purposes.

Oil Exploration Operation Company succeeds to introduce itself as a company with capacity of providing qualified services.

Operational groups of this company are employing qualified and educated personnel, modern equipments and latest working methods including:

  • Advanced techniques for geometrical design, field static corrections and scattered noise attenuation
  • Employing Wide Line and Crooked Line methods for data gathering in regions with obstacles.
  • Using a standard strategy in gathering, processing and explaining seismological data to analyze geophysical and geological information and obtaining optimal results.

Oil Exploration Operations Company has done more than thirty 2D and 3D seismological projects and cooperated with international geophysical companies that some of them are as follows:

 China-BGP

Norway - GGS

Vietnam-BATUPETRO

China- SINOPEC

UK- WESTERN  GECO

Australia-  SANTOS

Italy -  EDISON

 Turkey- TES

Switzerland- ZEROMAX

Austria - OMV

UK- ENSIGN

 Russia-SNG Gissar / Luk

Germany- GEOPRO  GMBH

France - CGG

Malaysia - PETRONAS

 

Seismological Operations (1997 – 2011)

More than 17200 km2

Land 3D survey

More than 4000 km2

Land 3D survey (with foreign companies)

More than 6483 km2

Marine 3D survey

More than 24500 km2

Land 2D survey

 

Geophysical Equipments

The main secret of our success is continual improvement of equipments along with permanent development of personnel’s knowledge.

Oil Exploration Operations Company is always following a specific plan in updating its equipments and software that are used in operational works. This company is recently employing modern seismological equipments including UL428Sercel and UL408Sercel recording systems and 65 Nomad vibrators in its projects.

Aforesaid recording systems are more qualified than previous ones. Some of their specifications are as follows:

  • Existence of a LINK which a complete units of seismological cables and numerous separate electronic channels with specific interspaces. These units are very efficient.
  • Seismic Areal Network is used in these equipments instead of telemetric traditional system. All parts of this system are nodes which are active on a seismological network and are connected with a recording device. Such systems are benefited from a multimedia network including laser, radio, cable and etc. which are providing appropriate solutions for complicated arrays.
  • Usage of advanced software:

Usage of modern software (Seismic Network Software) for controlling modern equipments of aforesaid machineries. This software can prepare Single-Component or Multi-Component recording through 3D methods and has very considerable capacity for registration of seismic data in big projects.

65Nomad vibrators which are employed in this company are providing required conditions for production in different geographical conditions with high security and less maintenance requirements.

  • Special Equipments:
  •  

Oil Exploration Operation Company has some special equipment for surveying seismological data in hydrocarbon fields with complicated structures and also in vulnerable and residential areas. These special equipments are as follows:

 

Digital Sensor Unit (DSU428)-3-Coponents Geophones

The electronic parts of these geophones are located in a compressed light container along with three sensors which are a part of UL408Sersel recording system.

This system was employed in a project in Uzbekistan and its qualified data was considerably welcomed by employed company (Petronas).

List of Fulfilled Projects:

 

 

LIST OF LAND & TZ SEISMIC PROJECTS ( 1998-2014)

Project

Type

Terrain

Client

Size ( as indicated in initial contract)

Actual work conducted by OEOC

Start Date

Completion Date/ Current  Situation

 

Mahshahr

 (Iran)

2D

Desert/Marshland

NIOC

500 Km

500 km

1998

2000

 

Darkhoyen

 (Iran)

3D

Desert

NIOC

373 Km²

373 Km²

1998

2000

 

Ab-Teymoor

 (Iran)

3D

Desert

NIOC

420 Km²

420 Km²

1999

2001

 

Shanul

(Iran)

2D

Mountain

GFTP

755 Km

725 Km

1999

1999

 

Ardestan

(Iran)

2D

Flat land

NIOC

1175 Km

1175 Km

1999

2001

 

Genaveh

 (Iran)

2D

Flat land

NIOC

886 Km

886 Km

1999

2000

 

Talkheh

(Iran)

2D

Mountain

PEDEC

125 Km

125 Km

1999

2000

 

Gorgan

 (Iran)

3D

Forest

KEPCO

195 Km²

216 Km²

2000

2001

 

Tabriz

(Iran)

 

2D

Mountain

PEDEC

229 Km

229 km

2000

2001

 

Fasa –Darab

(Iran)

2D

 

Mountain

NIOC

1100 Km

580Km

2001

2002

 

Gheshm

(Iran)

2D

Land

NIOC

594 Km

594Km

2001

2001

 

Serajeh

 (Iran)

2D

Salt lake

NIOC

154 Km

137 Km

2001

2001

 

Ein-e-Khosh

 (Iran)

2D

Mountain

OEID

276 Km

526 Km

2001

2002

 

Anaran ( with CCG)

(Iran)

2D

Mountain

Norsk Hydro

1,005 Km

544 Km

2001

2002

 

Mehr Block

(Iran)

2D

Sand dune desert

OMV

976 Km

976 Km

2001

2002

 

Kashan

(Iran)

2D

Desert/Marshland

SINOPEC

150 Km

150 Km

2001

2002

 

Kharg

(Persian Gulf)

3D

TZ.OBC

Total-Fina-Elf

600 km²

600 km²

2001

2002

 

Kerenj&Parsi (Iran)

3D

Mountain

NIOC

762Km²

762Km²

2002

2003

 

Yasooj

 (Iran)

2D

Mountain

GeoPro

83 Km

83 Km

2002

2003

 

Baba Monir

 (Iran)

2D

Mountain

Edison

534 Km

534 Km

2002

2003

 

Azadegan

(Iran)

3D

Desert/ Marshland

NIOC

1900 Km²

1790 Km²

2002

2004

 

Homa-Tabnak-Madar

 (Iran)

2D

Mountain

PEDEC

580 Km

572 Km

2003

2004

 

Koohestan II (Iran)

2D

Mountain

NIOC

1617 Km

1691 Km

2003

2005

 

Paydar

(Iran)

2D

Sand dune desert

OEID

614 Km

716 Km

2003

2004

 

Serajeh

(Iran)

3D

Salt lake

PEDEC

177 Km²

177 Km²

2004

2005

 

Mansouri

(Iran)

3D

Marshland

PEDEC

642 Km²

640 Km²

2004

2005

 

Marun & Kupal (Iran) 

3D

Flat land/Mountain

NIOC

1600 Km²

3000 Km²

2004

2006

 

Pazanan

(Iran)

3D

 

Mountain

PEDEC

1410 Km²

1001 Km²

2007

2009

 

Abadan

 (Iran)

2D

TZ, OBC

NIOC

975 km

956 km

2006

2009

 

Hendijan

 (Iran)

3D

TZ,OBC

IOOC

450 Km²(ff)

672 Km²

2006

2008

 

Mansoorabad

(Iran)

3D

Flat land/Mountain

NIOC

243 km2

250 Km²

2007

2008

 

Boysun  Block

(Uzbekistan)

3D/2D

Mountain

Petronas

635 Km² (ff)

/893 km

635 Km² (ff)

/893 km

2006

2008

 

SKB & AT Blocks

(Uzbekistan)

3D

Mountain

Lukoil

215 Km²

215 Km²

2007

2008

 

Tagam

(Uzbekistan)

3D

Mountain

Zeromax

151 Km²

151 Km²

2008

2008

 

Kopehdagh

 (Iran)

2D

Mountain

NIOC

420 km

520 km

2008

2008

 

Lavan

(Persian Gulf)

3D

Land, TZ,OBC

IOOC

140 km²

220 km²

2008

2009

 

Soh , Kataran- (Kyrgyzstan)

2D

Land

Santos

420 km

475 km

2009

2009

 

SW-West Gissar

(Uzbekistan)

3D

Mountain

Luk Oil

360 km²

360 km²

2009

2010

 

Surkhansky Pilot Test

(Uzbekistan)

2D

Land

Petronas

140 km

148 km

2009

2010

 

Danan Block (Iran)

2D

Mountain

Batupetro

572 km

647 km

2009

2010

 

Bibi-Hakimeh

(Iran)

3D

Mountain

NISOC

1650 km²

500  km²

2009

2011

 

Ramin

(Iran)

3D

Land

NISOC

876 km²

600 km²

+ 300 km

2009

Finished

Ongoing

 

Surkhansky (Uzbekistan)

2D

Land

Petronas

1,200 km

1259 km

2009

2010

 

Blocks 35&36, onshore (Uzbekistan)

2D

Land

Daewoo Energy

3,400km

3,400km

2010

2010

 

Lali & Karoon

(Iran)

3D

Mountain

NISOC

1,050 km²

N/A

2010

On-going

 

Kopehdagh II

2D

Mountain

NIOC

650 km

790 km

2011

2012

 

Zagros-1

2D

Mountain

NIOC

750 km

650 km

2011

2013

 

Zahab

2D

Land / Mountain

NIOC

1050 km

N/A

2013

On-going

 

Sepehr

2D/3D

Land

NIOPC

320 lkm/1460 km2

N/A

2014

On-going

 

 

Marine Seismic Operations

Surveying marine seismic data: providing qualified services in shallow and deep waters

  • Cooperation in 2000pc project in a region with length of 6000 kilometer in Persian Gulf and See of Oman

Persian Gulf includes the greatest global oil and gas reservoirs. 2000PC project which was fulfilled as per contract between Iran National Oil Company as one party and Mostazafan Foundation’s Energy Group and Norex Group (a Norwegian Company) as the other party, covers all coastal waters in Iran and highly qualified 2D seismic operations were done. Accordingly, a concentrated network with distance of 2*2 km was obtained from seismic lines and subsequent surveys were performed. Oil Exploration Operations Company played a key role in mentioned process.

The value of this project was 105,000,000 million dollars which lasts for two years and completed in June 2002.

Hereunder is a list of OEOC marine seismic projects.

LIST OF MARINE SEISMIC PROJECTS(1998-2014)

No.

Project

Type

Client

Size

Start Date

Completion date

1

PC2000

( Persian Gulf)

2D

PEDCO

 

3,500 km

1999

2002

2

Salman

( Persian Gulf)

2D

NIOC

1,500 km

2002

2003

3

Farzam

( Persian Gulf)

2D

NIOC

670 km

2002

2002

4

Foroozan

( Persian Gulf)

2D

NIOC

4,200 km

1998

2002

5

Esfandiyar

( Persian Gulf)

2D

NIOC

3,000 km

1999

2002

6

Khazar

( Caspian Sea)

3D

KEPCO

2,500  km²

2003

2006

7

Arash & Farzad B

(Persian Gulf)

3D

IOOC

1680 km²

2011

2012

8

Farzad A

3D

Petropars

300 km²

2012

2012

 

Seismic Operations in Shallow Coastal and Swamp Waters

Geophysics department has required capabilities for providing geophysical services including 2D & 3D seismic operations for qualified seismic data survey in planes, mountains, transition zones and even on sea.

Services of this department are:

  • Performing gravimetry and magnetometry operations by modern equipments
  • Performing 2D and 3D land seismic operations through subtle and modern equipments
  • Performing 2D and 3D land seismic operations in swamplands, shallow waters and marine areas
  • Processing 2D and 3D seismic data by advanced software and hardware
  • Engineering services for fulfillment of civil, mine and other studies

Multi-component Land and Marine Seismic Operations

Geophysical Equipments:

The main secret of our success is continual improvement of equipments along with permanent development of personnel’s knowledge.

Oil Exploration Operations Company is always following a specific plan in updating its equipments and software that are used in operational works. This company is recently employing modern seismological equipments including UL428Sercel and UL408Sercel recording systems and 65 Nomad vibrators in its projects.

Aforesaid recording systems are more qualified than previous ones. Some of their specifications are as follows:

  • Existence of a LINK which a complete units of seismological cables and numerous separate electronic channels with specific interspaces. These units are very efficient.
  • Seismic Areal Network is used in these equipments instead of telemetric traditional system. All parts of this system are nodes which are active on a seismological network and are connected with a recording device. Such systems are benefited from a multimedia network including laser, radio, cable and etc. which are providing appropriate solutions for complicated arrays.
  • Usage of advanced software:

Usage of modern software (Seismic Network Software) for controlling modern equipments of aforesaid machineries. This software can prepare Single-Component or Multi-Component recording through 3D methods and has very considerable capacity for registration of seismic data in big projects.

65Nomad vibrators which are employed in this company are providing required conditions for production in different geographical conditions with high security and less maintenance requirements.

VSP Operations

Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is a set of well’s registered seismographs.

Daily measurements including Electric Logs and Rock Cuttings are providing limited information about well’s casing.

Although surface seismic profiling provides required conditions for measuring larger areas and collects more information from subsurface horizons, these data are some limitations in resolution and etc. VSP may provide information which is appropriate to calibrating data gathered from two mentioned methods.

Usage of energy source geometry/ receiver in VSP technique creates appropriate method for aforesaid purposes.

Oil Exploration Operations Company has adequate experience in providing VSP services as well logging operations which include required specifications for various geophysical surveys including modeling, designing, data collection and processing.

Exact time/depth relation and speed of waves flow in different subsurface layers can be calculated through Downhole travel – time measurements and employ their results for calibrating surface seismic and well logging data. These services includes following methods:

  • Stationary  Source  Velocity  Survey with Near- Wellhead Source
  • Vertical Incidence Velocity Survey (Moving Source Directly above Downhole Receiver(s) in Deviated Well).

Reviewing, Processing and Explaining Data

Processing seismic data is necessary for connecting geophysical data survey and explaining that data. This progress required high speed and accuracy. Our purpose in OEOC Company is to process geophysical data in order to provide the most accurate and obvious image from subsurface structures.

This company can process 2D, 3D and 4D seismic data of lands, transition zones and marine area by employing a set of professional processing software.

ProMaz, GeoCluster and +GeoVecteur are among software that are used in processing department of OEOC for processing 2D and 3D seismic data of land and marine areas. VSP data may also be used in accordance with employer’s inquiry.

One of the distinctive aspects of OEOC processing center is designing and processing sequences and parameters for solving problems of a seismic line or part of 3D Cube.

Accordingly, various processing methods are employed for quality control and representing related results. We try to provide final results with high resolution and true relative amplitude. Reciprocal cooperation of processing and interpreting teams provides required conditions in order to develop conformity of final results with geological criteria.

Hereunder are services of OEOC processing department:

  • Processing 2D and 3D land and marine seismic data
  • Reviewing seismic data
  • Preparing seismic profiles
  • Preparing well logging diagrams
  • Interpreting 2D and 3D land and marine seismic data

Other used software:

  • Focus Software (data processing)
  • Seisfile Software (digitalizing data)
  • Logfile Software (digitalizing data)
  • SpaMedia (compacting and rewriting data from magnetic bonds on DLT)
  • Magma (compacting and rewriting data from magnetic bonds on DLT)
  • Tigress (Interpreting)
  • Hampson Russel (Seismic Inversion)
  • Odegaard (Seismic Inversion)

 

 

List of data processing projects fulfilled by Oil Exploration Operations Company:

Type of Processing

Name of City

Type of Processing

Name of City

Type of Processing

Name of City

Type of Processing

Name of City

2D

Shadegan

2D

Mousian

2D

Raz

2D

Kashan

2D

Gorgan

2D

Anaran

2D

Bid Karz

2D

Zaghe

2D

Gonabad

2D

Varamin

2D

Mahshar

2D

Abouzar

2D

Balaroud

2D

Dasht Moghan

2D

Hoveizeh

2D

Zabol

2D

Sarab

2D

Anaran

2D

Ahvaz

2D

Se Ghanat

2D

Arash

2D

Germi

2D

Shoushtar

2D

Garangan

2D

Khazar

2D

Ab Teymour

2D

Genaveh

2D

Borazjan

 

 

2D

Tabriz

2D

Ein Khosh

2D

Sharanjan

 

Non-seismic Geophysical Studies (Gravitometry, Magnetometry, Magneto Telluric, Micro Gravitometry)

Gravitometry and Magnetometry Surveys:

Gravitometry and magnetometry surveys play important role in oil exploration operations because they can recognize structures which represent faults. Faults have considerable impacts on upward movement of oil and gas, formation of hydrocarbure traps and consequently formation of oil and gas reservoirs.

List of Equipments:

Statistics of gravitometry and magnetometry operations (1997-2011)

Gravitometry and magnetometry surveys: 15231 km2

LIST OF NON- SEISMIC PROJECTS (1999-2013)

No.

Project

Type

Client

Size

Start Date

Completion Date/ Current  Situation

1

Behshahr

Gravity & Magnetic

NIOC

2650 km2

1999

2000

2

Garmsar

Gravity & Magnetic

PEDEC

212 km2

1999

2000

3

Tabriz (Phase 1)

Gravity & Magnetic

PEDEC

2600 km2

1999

2000

4

Ghalat

Gravity & Magnetic

NIOC

1850 km2

2000

2001

5

Moghan

Gravity & Magnetic

NIOC

5900 km2

2001

2002

6

Tabriz (Phase 2)

Gravity & Magnetic

PEDEC

315 km2

2000

2001

7

Kopeh Dagh

Gravity & Magnetic

NIOC

1700 km2

2007

2008

8

Sorkheh-Howz Soltan

Gravity & Magnetic

NIOC

2950 km2

2013

2013

 

 

Gravitometry and magnetometry maps are representing relation and effectiveness of current anomalies in foundation stone and their impacts on current faults of accumulated sediments on foundation stone. Moreover, registered curves in these maps can determine type of subsurface layers and impacts of uneven surface of foundation stone in formation of oil and gas traps.